|State of Texas|
|Nickname(s): The Lone Star State|
|Official language||No official language
(see Languages spoken in Texas)
|Spoken languages||English 68.7%
|Largest metro||Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington|
|- Total||268,581 sq mi
|- Width||773 miles (1,244 km)|
|- Length||790 miles (1,270 km)|
|- % water||2.5|
|- Latitude||25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N|
|- Longitude||93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W|
|- Total||26,059,203 (2012 est)|
|- Density||98.1/sq mi (37.9/km2)
|- Highest point||Guadalupe Peak
8,751 ft (2667.4 m)
|- Mean||1,700 ft (520 m)|
|- Lowest point||Gulf of Mexico
|Before statehood||Republic of Texas|
|Admission to Union||December 29, 1845 (28th)|
|Governor||Rick Perry (R)|
|Lieutenant Governor||David Dewhurst (R)|
|- Upper house||Senate|
|- Lower house||House of Representatives|
|U.S. Senators||John Cornyn (R)
Ted Cruz (R)
|U.S. House delegation||24 Republicans,
12 Democrats (list)
|- most of state||Central: UTC −6/−5|
|- tip of West Texas||Mountain: UTC −7/−6|
|Abbreviations||TX, Tex. US-TX|
Texas is the second most populous (after California) and the second-largest of the 50 states (after Alaska) in the United States of America, and the largest state in the 48 contiguous United States. Geographically located in the South Central part of the country, Texas shares aninternational border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and borders the U.S. states ofNew Mexico to the west, Oklahoma to the north, Arkansas to the northeast, and Louisiana to the east. Texas has an area of 268,820 square miles (696,200 km2) and a growing population of 26.1 million residents.
Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth-largest in the United States, while San Antonio is the second largest in the state and seventh largest in the United States. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest United States metropolitan areas, respectively. Other major cities include El Paso and Austin—the state capital. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify Texas as a former independent republic and as a reminder of the state’s struggle for independence from Mexico. The “Lone Star” can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texas state seal today. The origin of the state name, Texas, is from the word, “Tejas”, which means ‘friends’ in the Caddolanguage.
Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes that resemble both the American South andSouthwest. Although Texas is popularly associated with the Southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of the land area is desert. Most of the population centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.
The term “six flags over Texas“, as can be seen in the Grand Prairie-based large national and international amusement park operator Six Flags, came from the several nations that had ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held ashort-lived colony in Texas. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845 it joined the United States as the 28th state. The state’s annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state, Texas declared its secession from the United States in early 1861, joining the Confederate States of America during theAmerican Civil War. After the war and its restoration to the Union, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.
One Texas industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle. Due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The state’s economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century, when oil discoveries initiated an economic boom in the state. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century. As of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product.